Unique Solution:

“Kinetic Absorber”
“Potential Absorber”

Trepl II, John A. “Characterization of Renewable Energy Systems: Kinetic versus Potential Absorbers.” Diss. (unpublished)

Kinetic Absorber

• Physics limit of kinetic transfer: Only 12% of kinetic
energy can be absorbed
• Energy not instantaneously absorbed is lost
• Windmills, sea turbines, and solar panels are all
Kinetic Absorbers

Potential Absorber

• Potential energy is captured, stored, and available
• Conversion is most efficient; at the leisure of the
• Conventional Hydroelectric (with a dam and
reservoir) is a Potential Absorber